Friday, November 27, 2015

14 Reasons IQ Race Gap is Genetic

Intelligence differences are genetic.

Reasons we know that the intelligence gap between Whites and blacks is genetically based.

1. There are pervasive physical differences between Whites and blacks, including brain size and structure, bone density, muscularity, fat storage, hormones, and metabolic rate.  Whites' brains average 6-8% larger;  larger brains being correlated with higher intelligence.  There are also differences in behavioral traits such as sexual activeness, marital fidelity, birth rate, gestation period, and maturation rate.  These indicate a biological strategy of greater parental investment for Whites, also correlated with higher intelligence.

2. Genetic divergence of the races has accelerated since Whites/blacks split over 60,000 years ago, and a majority of genes affect the brain.  Whites evolved in Northern regions with greater cognitive demands to plan and prepare for harsh Winters.

3. Many specific gene alleles have been linked to higher intelligence, and in every case these alleles occur with greater frequency in Whites than blacks.

4. White-black academic and cultural disparities, including an IQ gap of 1SD or more, are consistent across geographic regions and technological eras.  They persist throughout various cultures, and in spite of massive uplift programs benefiting blacks and some devastating wars afflicting Whites.

5. When African blacks took control of White-governed nations with advanced infrastructure, some of them rich in resources, the level of civilization collapsed.

6. Twin/adoption studies consistently show that core traits including intelligence are mostly genetic-based for both Whites and blacks, and rule out cultural factors as possible causes of the IQ gap.  Identical twins reared in random families have much closer IQs than fraternal twins reared in the same family.  Genome-wide gene association studies reach the same conclusion.

7. The 1SD White/black IQ gap is evident in the first tests of children at age 3, when cultural differences are minimal, and is consistent throughout the lifespan.

8. Intensive and extravagant education programs have mostly failed to raise black IQ or academic achievement, having but minimal effect.

9. Blacks adopted as infants into middle-class White families have, by adulthood, the same 1SD lower IQ than their adopted White cohorts.  Mixed race cohorts have intermediate IQs.

10. Black children of high-IQ parents have IQs midway between their parents' and the lower black mean, in accordance with the hereditarian principle of regression to the mean.  White children regress toward the 1SD higher White mean, and so they have higher IQs than blacks with parents of the same IQ.  Children of lowest-income Whites score higher on SATs than children of highest-income blacks.

11. Mixed-race blacks having more White ancestry have higher IQs than those with less White ancestry.  Reported ancestry is an even stronger predictor of their IQs than skin lightness.

12. The White/black gap is largest on IQ subtests that are the most g-loaded and heritable.  These items have the closest correlation with biological measures such as brain size, cortical thickness, rate of glucose metabolism, nerve conduction velocity, and reaction time.

13. Blacks do no better on intelligence tests that are non-cultural, such as Raven’s Progressive Matrices, Backward digit span, and Reaction time tests.

14. Blacks in White nations not only enjoy the benefits of White civilization, but are advantaged in many respects: pervasive anti-White discrimination in education and hiring, high taxes/insurance premiums paid by Whites for black welfare/benefits, special education programs, and an entertainment media that extols blacks and ridicules Whites.  Blacks have much higher self-esteem than Whites.


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Sources:

1a- Race, Evolution, and Behavior.
http://psychology.uwo.ca/faculty/rushtonpdfs/Race_Evolution_Behavior.pdf

1b- Brain size, IQ, and racial-group differences: Evidence from musculoskeletal traits.
http://philipperushton.net/wp-content/uploads/2015/02/Brain-Size-IQ-and-Racial-Group-Differences-Evidence-From-Musculoskeletal-Traits-2003-by-John-Philippe-Rushton-Elizabeth-W.-Rushton.pdf

1c- Brain Size, Race, and IQ.
http://thealternativehypothesis.org/index.php/2016/04/15/brain-size-race-and-iq/

1d- Brain Size and IQ.
http://thealternativehypothesis.org/index.php/2016/04/15/brain-size-and-iq/

1e- Modeling the 3D Geometry of the Cortical Surface with Genetic Ancestry.
http://www.cell.com/current-biology/abstract/S0960-9822%2815%2900671-5

2a- Recent acceleration of human adaptive evolution.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2410101/

2b- Different level of population differentiation among human genes.
http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/11/16

2c- Rare variants and human genetic diversity.
http://infoproc.blogspot.com/2012/07/rare-variants-and-human-genetic.html

2d- The Human Brain Online: An Open Resource for Advancing Brain Research.
http://journals.plos.org/plosbiology/article?id=10.1371/journal.pbio.1001453

3a- Race and IQ: Genes That Predict Racial Intelligence Differences.
http://therightstuff.biz/2015/09/02/race-and-iq-genes-that-predict-racial-intelligence-differences/

3b- A review of intelligence GWAS hits: Their relationship to country IQ and the issue of spatial autocorrelation.
http://emilkirkegaard.dk/en/wp-content/uploads/PifferIntelligence2015.pdf

4a- Intelligence: A Unifying Construct for the Social Sciences.
https://lesacreduprintemps19.files.wordpress.com/2012/08/intelligence-a-unifying-construct-for-the-social-sciences-richard-lynn-and-tatu-vanhanen.pdf

4b- National IQs predict GMAT scores across 173 nations.
http://humanvarieties.org/2014/02/02/quick-post-lvs-national-iqs-predicts-gmat-scores-across-173-nations/

4c- National differences in G.
https://abc102.wordpress.com/2006/03/23/national-differences-in-g/

4d- The totality of available evidence shows race-IQ gap still remains.
http://philipperushton.net/wp-content/uploads/2015/02/The-Totality-of-Available-Evidence-Shows-the-Race-IQ-Gap-Still-Remains-2006-by-John-Philippe-Rushton-Arthur-Robert-Jensen.pdf

4e- Test Scores Sink as New York Adopts Tougher Benchmarks.
http://www.nytimes.com/2013/08/08/nyregion/under-new-standards-students-see-sharp-decline-in-test-scores.html

5a- Mugabe’s fall symbolic of economic collapse.
http://www.theindependent.co.zw/2015/02/13/mugabes-fall-symbolic-economic-collapse/

5b- South Africa: Where Corruption, Rape and Murder Are Normal.
https://www.thetrumpet.com/article/11050.30898.159.0

5c- Black South Africans much worse off under ANC-rule now than under apartheid.
http://www.spainvia.com/leftwingdisaster.htm

5d- The Agony of Africa.
http://www.amren.com/news/2009/02/the_agony_of_af/

6a- Meta-analysis of the heritability of human traits based on fifty years of twin studies.
http://www.nature.com/ng/journal/v47/n7/full/ng.3285.html

6b- The Heritability of IQ.
http://thealternativehypothesis.org/index.php/2016/04/15/the-heritability-of-iq/

6c- Genes influence academic ability across all subjects, latest study shows.
http://www.theguardian.com/science/2015/jul/23/genes-influence-academic-ability-across-all-subjects-latest-study-shows

6d- Genetics, Not Upbringing, Main Influencer in a Child’s IQ, Study Says.
http://www.foxnews.com/health/2014/10/30/genetics-not-upbringing-main-influencer-in-childs-iq-study-says.html

6e- The gene-environment hypothesis.
https://abc102.wordpress.com/2011/02/17/the-gene-environment-hypothesis/

6f- Genome-wide association studies establish that human intelligence is highly heritable and polygenic.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21826061

7- The Onset and Development of B-W Ability Differences: Early Infancy to Age 3.
http://humanvarieties.org/2013/05/26/the-onset-and-development-of-b-w-ability-differences-early-infancy-to-age-3-part-1/

8a- The shaky science behind Obama’s universal pre-K.
https://www.aei.org/publication/the-shaky-science-behind-obamas-universal-pre-k/

8b- Universal Preschool’s Empty Promises.
http://www.heritage.org/research/reports/2013/03/universal-preschools-empty-promises

8c- Expectations of sustained effects from scaled up pre-K: Challenges from the Tennessee study.
http://www.brookings.edu/research/papers/2015/10/08-expectations-of-sustained-effects-from-scaled-up-prek-challenges-tennessee-study-farran-lipsey

8d- Money And School Performance: Lessons from the Kansas City Desegregation Experiment.
http://www.cato.org/pubs/pas/pa-298.html

9- Research That Was to Prove Jensen Wrong Proves Him Right.
http://www.amren.com/ar/1994/03/

10a- Thirty years of research on race differences in cognitive ability; Section 9: Mean Race–IQ Differences and Regression.
http://philipperushton.net/wp-content/uploads/2015/02/Thirty-Years-of-Research-on-Race-Differences-in-Cognitive-Ability-2005-by-John-Philippe-Rushton-Arthur-Robert-Jensen.pdf

10b- The Expanding Racial Scoring Gap Between Black and White SAT Test Takers.
http://www.jbhe.com/features/49_college_admissions-test.html

11a- Spearman’s hypothesis and the NLSY97-ASVAB, part 2.
http://humanvarieties.org/2013/01/29/spearmans-hypothesis-and-the-nlsy97-asvab-part-2/

11b- More than Just “Colorism”: Part 1.
http://humanvarieties.org/2013/02/02/more-than-just-colorism-part-1/

11c- Colorism in America?
http://humanvarieties.org/2013/02/22/colorism-in-america-1/

11d- Race-Mixing (section 3).
http://thealternativehypothesis.org/index.php/2016/10/15/race-mixing/

12a- Life history theory and race differences; Section 4. Spearman’s g and Jensen effects.
http://philipperushton.net/wp-content/uploads/2015/02/Life-History-Theory-and-Race-Differences-An-Appreciation-of-Richard-Lynn%E2%80%99s-Contributions-to-Science-2012-by-John-Philippe-Rushton.pdf

12b- Subtest Heritability, The G Factor, and Racial Intelligence Differences.
http://thealternativehypothesis.org/index.php/2016/04/16/subtest-heritability-the-g-factor-and-racial-intelligence-differences/

12c- Spearman’s Hypothesis and Racial Differences on the DAS-II.
http://humanvarieties.org/2013/12/08/spearmans-hypothesis-and-racial-differences-on-the-das-ii/

12d- Spearman's hypothesis on item-level data from Raven's Standard Progressive Matrices: A replication and extension.
https://thewinnower.com/papers/spearman-s-hypothesis-on-item-level-data-from-raven-s-standard-progressive-matrices-a-replication-and-extension

12e- G loadings, Sub Test Malleability, and Racial IQ Differences (The Jensen Effect).
http://spawktalk.blogspot.com/2014/11/g-loadings-sub-test-malleability-and.html

12f- Spearman’s hypothesis and the Jensen Effect.
https://abc102.wordpress.com/2011/02/17/spearmans-hypothesis-and-the-jensen-effect/

12g- Is Psychometric g a Myth?
http://humanvarieties.org/2013/04/03/is-psychometric-g-a-myth/

13a- Thirty years of research on race differences in cognitive ability; Section 3: Mean Race–IQ Differences: A Global Perspective.
http://philipperushton.net/wp-content/uploads/2015/02/Thirty-Years-of-Research-on-Race-Differences-in-Cognitive-Ability-2005-by-John-Philippe-Rushton-Arthur-Robert-Jensen.pdf

13b- Racial Differences on Digit Span Tests.
http://humanvarieties.org/2013/12/21/racial-differences-on-digit-span-tests/

14a- The Elusive X-Factor, or Why Jonathan Kaplan Is Wrong about Race and IQ.
http://humanvarieties.org/2014/08/25/the-elusive-x-factor-or-why-jonathan-kaplan-is-wrong-about-race-and-iq/

14b- The Racial Tithe.
http://therightstuff.biz/2016/05/12/the-racial-tithe/

14c- The Cost of Welfare Use By Immigrant and Native Households; Race and Ethnicity.
http://cis.org/Cost-Welfare-Immigrant-Native-Households

14d- All Those White People on Food Stamps.
http://therightstuff.biz/2015/09/13/all-those-white-people-on-food-stamps/

14e- Affirmative Action.
http://thealternativehypothesis.org/index.php/2016/12/17/affirmative-action/

14f- Affirmative Action and the Costs of Diversity.
http://www.npiamerica.org/research/category/affirmative-action-and-the-costs-of-diversity

14g- The Myth of American Meritocracy.
http://www.theamericanconservative.com/articles/the-myth-of-american-meritocracy/

14h- Testing standards lowered by affirmative action.
http://www.care2.com/c2c/share/detail/1354710

14i- The Affirmative Action Hoax.
http://www.neoeugenics.net/hoax.htm

14j- Affirmative Action Thrives at Most Selective Colleges.
http://www.rollcall.com/news/affirmative_action_thrives_at_most_selective_colleges-240861-1.html

14k- Black, Asian women with college degree outearn white women.
http://community.seattletimes.nwsource.com/archive/?date=20050328&slug=income28

14l- Black Americans have higher self-esteem than White Americans.
http://conservative-headlines.com/2014/12/black-americans-have-higher-self-esteem-than-white-americans/



See also: 14 Biological Race Differences
http://fjamger.blogspot.com/2015/11/14brd.html

14 Biological Race Differences

Race only skin deep? Not. 

Whites and blacks evolved separately for 60K+ years and there are major genetic/biological differences between them throughout the body and mind.


1. Body proportions.  Whites have longer torsos, wider waists, and shorter arms and legs than blacks.

2. Bone density.  Whites have lower bone density, greater incidence of osteoporotic fractures, and more bone regrowth than blacks.

3. Muscularity.  Whites have a lower ratio of fast switch to slow twitch muscles than blacks, and a lower frequency of ACTN3 "speed gene".

4. Metabolic rate.  Whites have a lower resting metabolism than blacks, in both sexes and regardless of obesity.

5. Fat storage.  Whites have a higher proportion of visceral (internal) fat and lower subcutaneous (skin) fat than blacks.  Blacks also tend to have Steatopygia: large butt fat.

6. Disease susceptibility.
  Some diseases (Cystic Fibrosis) affect mostly whites; others mostly blacks (Sickle Cell).  Many illnesses and treatments have disparate effects on whites/blacks.

7. Birth rate.  Whites have a lower rate of fraternal (two egg) twin births than blacks, only half as high prior to fertility drugs.  Lower birthrates are biologically correlated with higher parental investment.

8. Pregnancy.  Whites normally have a longer gestation period (40 to 39 weeks) and a lower preterm birth rate than blacks;  black fetuses mature quicker.

9. Maturation rate.  White youths mature slower than blacks across all developmental indices, including infant motor skills, pubertal growth, and menstruation.  Slower maturation is biologically correlated with higher intelligence.

10. Hormones.  White young men have lower free testosterone than blacks, and white men and women have lower estrogen than blacks.  Whites are less hormone-driven.

11. Aggression.  Blacks have over 10x higher frequency of the violence-linked gene allele MAOA-2R than whites.

12. Skull shape.  Whites' skulls typically differ from blacks' in many respects: no sagittal ridge keeling, eye sockets more angular, nasal cavity narrower, palate more triangular, jaw less prognathic, etc.

13. Brain size and structure.  Whites' brains are typically 6-8% larger than blacks'.  Larger brains are correlated with higher intelligence.  Whites' brains also have differing structure, with more protruding frontal and occipital regions.

14. IQ and genes.  Whites consistently score 15 points (1SD) higher than Black Americans and 20+ points higher than Africans on IQ tests;  this gap being genetically based.  Gene alleles linked to intelligence have higher frequency in Whites than blacks.


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Sources:

1- Scientists Theorize Why Black Athletes Run Fastest.
http://www.livescience.com/10716-scientists-theorize-black-athletes-run-fastest.html

2- Racial Differences in Bone Strength.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1863580/

3a- Sports Genes: What makes great athletes and why it matters.
http://www.geneticliteracyproject.org/2015/05/20/sports-genes-what-makes-great-athletes-and-why-it-matters/

3b- The Gene for Speed: ACTN3.
http://kohlmanngen677s13.weebly.com/

4- Differences in resting metabolic rate between white and African-American young adults.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12181380

5a- Blacks Have Less 'Bad Fat' Than Whites.
http://abcnews.go.com/Health/Healthday/blacks-bad-fat-whites/story?id=9375900

5b- What is Steatopygia?
http://news.softpedia.com/news/What-is-Steatopygia-51231.shtml

6- Science on racial differences; Medical conditions and treatment.
http://www.ironbarkresources.com/defendingfreespeech/dfs05racescience.htm#Medical

7- Dizygotic twinning.
http://humupd.oxfordjournals.org/content/14/1/37.full

8- Does gestation vary by ethnic group? A London-based study of over 122 000 pregnancies with spontaneous onset of labour.
http://ije.oxfordjournals.org/content/33/1/107.full

9a- Evaluation of the Peabody Developmental Gross Motor Scales for Young children of African American land Hispanic Backgrounds.
http://journals.lww.com/pedpt/Abstract/1999/01140/Evaluation_of_the_Peabody_Developmental_Gross.4.aspx

9b- Secondary Sexual Characteristics and Menses in Young Girls Seen in Office Practice.
http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/99/4/505

9c- American Academy of Pediatrics study documents early puberty onset in boys.
http://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2012-10/aaop-aao_2101312.php

10a- Black Males and Testosterone: Evolution and Perspectives.
https://robertlindsay.wordpress.com/2015/07/23/repost-black-males-and-testosterone-evolution-and-perspectives/

10b- Testosterone, Race, and Crime.
http://thealternativehypothesis.org/index.php/2016/04/15/testosterone-race-and-crime/

10c- Estrogen May Explain the Higher PCa Risk in Blacks.
http://www.renalandurologynews.com/prostate-cancer/estrogen-may-explain-the-higher-pca-risk-in-blacks/article/149218/

10d- Estrogen Levels Are Higher across the Menstrual Cycle in African-American Women Compared with Caucasian Women.
http://press.endocrine.org/doi/abs/10.1210/jc.2011-1314

11a- Scientists Rediscover the Violence Gene, MAOA-2R.
http://theunsilencedscience.blogspot.com/2012/12/scientists-rediscover-violence-gene.html

11b- MAOA, Race, and Crime.
http://thealternativehypothesis.org/index.php/2016/04/15/maoa-race-and-crime/

11c- The 2-Repeat Allele of the MAOA Gene Confers an Increased Risk for Shooting and Stabbing Behaviors.
https://www.researchgate.net/publication/259270974_The_2-Repeat_Allele_of_the_MAOA_Gene_Confers_an_Increased_Risk_for_Shooting_and_Stabbing_Behaviors

12- Osteological/Bioarchaeological Analysis.
http://people.wku.edu/darlene.applegate/archlabmethods/labs/lab5/lab5.html

13a- Brain size, IQ, and racial-group differences: Evidence from musculoskeletal traits.
http://philipperushton.net/wp-content/uploads/2015/02/Brain-Size-IQ-and-Racial-Group-Differences-Evidence-From-Musculoskeletal-Traits-2003-by-John-Philippe-Rushton-Elizabeth-W.-Rushton.pdf

13b- Brain Size, Race, and IQ.
http://thealternativehypothesis.org/index.php/2016/04/15/brain-size-race-and-iq/

13c- Brain Size and IQ.
http://thealternativehypothesis.org/index.php/2016/04/15/brain-size-and-iq/

13d- Brain size and correlates with IQ.
https://abc102.wordpress.com/2011/02/17/brain-size-and-correlates-with-iq/

13e- Modeling the 3D Geometry of the Cortical Surface with Genetic Ancestry.
http://www.cell.com/current-biology/abstract/S0960-9822%2815%2900671-5

14a- Race and IQ: Genes That Predict Racial Intelligence Differences.
http://therightstuff.biz/2015/09/02/race-and-iq-genes-that-predict-racial-intelligence-differences/

14b- A review of intelligence GWAS hits: Their relationship to country IQ and the issue of spatial autocorrelation.
http://emilkirkegaard.dk/en/wp-content/uploads/PifferIntelligence2015.pdf



See also: 14 Reasons IQ Race Gap is Genetic
http://fjamger.blogspot.com/2015/11/14rir.html