Intelligence differences are genetic.
Reasons we know that the intelligence gap between Whites and blacks is genetically based.
1. There are pervasive physical differences between Whites and blacks, including brain size and structure, bone density, muscularity, fat storage, hormones, and metabolic rate. Whites' brains average 6-8% larger; larger brains being correlated with higher intelligence. There are also differences in behavioral traits such as sexual activeness, marital fidelity, birth rate, gestation period, and maturation rate. These indicate a biological strategy of greater parental investment for Whites, also correlated with higher intelligence.
2. Genetic divergence of the races has accelerated since Whites/blacks split over 60,000 years ago, and a majority of genes affect the brain. Whites evolved in Northern regions with greater cognitive demands to plan and prepare for harsh Winters.
3. Many specific gene alleles have been linked to higher intelligence, and in every case these alleles occur with greater frequency in Whites than blacks.
4. White-black academic and cultural disparities, including an IQ gap of 1SD or more, are consistent across geographic regions and technological eras. They persist throughout various cultures, and in spite of massive uplift programs benefiting blacks and some devastating wars afflicting Whites.
5. When African blacks took control of White-governed nations with advanced infrastructure, some of them rich in resources, the level of civilization collapsed.
6. Twin/adoption studies consistently show that core traits including intelligence are mostly genetic-based for both Whites and blacks, and rule out cultural factors as possible causes of the IQ gap. Identical twins reared in random families have much closer IQs than fraternal twins reared in the same family. Genome-wide gene association studies reach the same conclusion.
7. The 1SD White/black IQ gap is evident in the first tests of children at age 3, when cultural differences are minimal, and is consistent throughout the lifespan.
8. Intensive and extravagant education programs have mostly failed to raise black IQ or academic achievement, having but minimal effect.
9. Blacks adopted as infants into middle-class White families have, by adulthood, the same 1SD lower IQ than their adopted White cohorts. Mixed race cohorts have intermediate IQs.
10. Black children of high-IQ parents have IQs midway between their parents' and the lower black mean, in accordance with the hereditarian principle of regression to the mean. White children regress toward the 1SD higher White mean, and so they have higher IQs than blacks with parents of the same IQ. Children of lowest-income Whites score higher on SATs than children of highest-income blacks.
11. Mixed-race blacks having more White ancestry have higher IQs than those with less White ancestry. Reported ancestry is an even stronger predictor of their IQs than skin lightness.
12. The White/black gap is largest on IQ subtests that are the most g-loaded and heritable. These items have the closest correlation with biological measures such as brain size, cortical thickness, rate of glucose metabolism, nerve conduction velocity, and reaction time.
13. Blacks do no better on intelligence tests that are non-cultural, such as Raven’s Progressive Matrices, Backward digit span, and Reaction time tests.
14. Blacks in White nations not only enjoy the benefits of White civilization, but are advantaged in many respects: pervasive anti-White discrimination in education and hiring, high taxes/insurance premiums paid by Whites for black welfare/benefits, special education programs, and an entertainment media that extols blacks and ridicules Whites. Blacks have much higher self-esteem than Whites.
1a- Race, Evolution, and Behavior.
1b- Brain size, IQ, and racial-group differences: Evidence from musculoskeletal traits.
1c- Brain Size, Race, and IQ.
1d- Brain Size and IQ.
1e- Modeling the 3D Geometry of the Cortical Surface with Genetic Ancestry.
2a- Recent acceleration of human adaptive evolution.
2b- Different level of population differentiation among human genes.
2c- Rare variants and human genetic diversity.
2d- The Human Brain Online: An Open Resource for Advancing Brain Research.
3a- Race and IQ: Genes That Predict Racial Intelligence Differences.
3b- A review of intelligence GWAS hits: Their relationship to country IQ and the issue of spatial autocorrelation.
4a- Intelligence: A Unifying Construct for the Social Sciences.
4b- National IQs predict GMAT scores across 173 nations.
4c- National differences in G.
4d- The totality of available evidence shows race-IQ gap still remains.
4e- Test Scores Sink as New York Adopts Tougher Benchmarks.
5a- Mugabe’s fall symbolic of economic collapse.
5b- South Africa: Where Corruption, Rape and Murder Are Normal.
5c- Black South Africans much worse off under ANC-rule now than under apartheid.
5d- The Agony of Africa.
6a- Meta-analysis of the heritability of human traits based on fifty years of twin studies.
6b- The Heritability of IQ.
6c- Genes influence academic ability across all subjects, latest study shows.
6d- Genetics, Not Upbringing, Main Influencer in a Child’s IQ, Study Says.
6e- The gene-environment hypothesis.
6f- Genome-wide association studies establish that human intelligence is highly heritable and polygenic.
7- The Onset and Development of B-W Ability Differences: Early Infancy to Age 3.
8a- The shaky science behind Obama’s universal pre-K.
8b- Universal Preschool’s Empty Promises.
8c- Expectations of sustained effects from scaled up pre-K: Challenges from the Tennessee study.
8d- Money And School Performance: Lessons from the Kansas City Desegregation Experiment.
9- Research That Was to Prove Jensen Wrong Proves Him Right.
10a- Thirty years of research on race differences in cognitive ability; Section 9: Mean Race–IQ Differences and Regression.
10b- The Expanding Racial Scoring Gap Between Black and White SAT Test Takers.
11a- Spearman’s hypothesis and the NLSY97-ASVAB, part 2.
11b- More than Just “Colorism”: Part 1.
11c- Colorism in America?
11d- Race-Mixing (section 3).
12a- Life history theory and race differences; Section 4. Spearman’s g and Jensen effects.
12b- Subtest Heritability, The G Factor, and Racial Intelligence Differences.
12c- Spearman’s Hypothesis and Racial Differences on the DAS-II.
12d- Spearman's hypothesis on item-level data from Raven's Standard Progressive Matrices: A replication and extension.
12e- G loadings, Sub Test Malleability, and Racial IQ Differences (The Jensen Effect).
12f- Spearman’s hypothesis and the Jensen Effect.
12g- Is Psychometric g a Myth?
13a- Thirty years of research on race differences in cognitive ability; Section 3: Mean Race–IQ Differences: A Global Perspective.
13b- Racial Differences on Digit Span Tests.
14a- The Elusive X-Factor, or Why Jonathan Kaplan Is Wrong about Race and IQ.
14b- The Racial Tithe.
14c- The Cost of Welfare Use By Immigrant and Native Households; Race and Ethnicity.
14d- All Those White People on Food Stamps.
14e- Affirmative Action.
14f- Affirmative Action and the Costs of Diversity.
14g- The Myth of American Meritocracy.
14h- Testing standards lowered by affirmative action.
14i- The Affirmative Action Hoax.
14j- Affirmative Action Thrives at Most Selective Colleges.
14k- Black, Asian women with college degree outearn white women.
14l- Black Americans have higher self-esteem than White Americans.
See also: 14 Biological Race Differences