Race only skin deep? Not.
Whites and blacks evolved separately for 60K+ years and there are major genetic/biological differences between them throughout the body and mind.
1. Body proportions. Whites have longer torsos, wider waists, and shorter arms and legs than blacks.
2. Bone density. Whites have lower bone density, greater incidence of osteoporotic fractures, and more bone regrowth than blacks.
3. Muscularity. Whites have a lower ratio of fast switch to slow twitch muscles than blacks, and a lower frequency of ACTN3 "speed gene".
4. Metabolic rate. Whites have a higher resting metabolism than blacks, in both sexes and regardless of obesity.
5. Fat storage. Whites have a higher proportion of visceral (internal) fat and lower subcutaneous (skin) fat than blacks. Blacks also tend to have Steatopygia: large butt fat.
6. Disease susceptibility. Some diseases (Cystic Fibrosis) affect mostly whites; others mostly blacks (Sickle Cell). Many illnesses and treatments have disparate effects on whites/blacks.
7. Birth rate. Whites have a lower rate of fraternal (two egg) twin births than blacks, only half as high prior to fertility drugs. Lower birthrates are biologically correlated with higher parental investment.
8. Pregnancy. Whites normally have a longer gestation period (40 to 39 weeks) and a lower preterm birth rate than blacks; black fetuses mature quicker.
9. Maturation rate. White youths mature slower than blacks across all developmental indices, including infant motor skills, pubertal growth, and menstruation. Slower maturation is biologically correlated with higher intelligence.
10. Hormones. White young men have lower free testosterone than blacks, and white men and women have lower estrogen than blacks. Whites are less hormone-driven.
11. Aggression. Blacks have over 10x higher frequency of the violence-linked gene allele MAOA-2R than whites.
12. Skull shape. Whites' skulls typically differ from blacks' in many respects: no sagittal ridge keeling, eye sockets more angular, nasal cavity narrower, palate more triangular, jaw less prognathic, etc.
13. Brain size and structure. Whites' brains are typically 6-8% larger than blacks'. Larger brains are correlated with higher intelligence. Whites' brains also have differing structure, with more protruding frontal and occipital regions.
14. IQ and genes. Whites consistently score 15 points (1SD) higher than Black Americans and 20+ points higher than Africans on IQ tests; this gap being genetically based. Gene alleles linked to intelligence have higher frequency in Whites than blacks.
1- Scientists Theorize Why Black Athletes Run Fastest.
2- Racial Differences in Bone Strength.
3a- Sports Genes: What makes great athletes and why it matters.
3b- The Gene for Speed: ACTN3.
4- Differences in resting metabolic rate between white and African-American young adults.
5a- Blacks Have Less 'Bad Fat' Than Whites.
5b- What is Steatopygia?
6- Science on racial differences; Medical conditions and treatment.
7- Dizygotic twinning.
8- Does gestation vary by ethnic group? A London-based study of over 122 000 pregnancies with spontaneous onset of labour.
9a- Evaluation of the Peabody Developmental Gross Motor Scales for Young children of African American land Hispanic Backgrounds.
9b- Secondary Sexual Characteristics and Menses in Young Girls Seen in Office Practice.
9c- American Academy of Pediatrics study documents early puberty onset in boys.
10a- Black Males and Testosterone: Evolution and Perspectives.
10b- Testosterone, Race, and Crime.
10c- Estrogen May Explain the Higher PCa Risk in Blacks.
10d- Estrogen Levels Are Higher across the Menstrual Cycle in African-American Women Compared with Caucasian Women.
11a- Scientists Rediscover the Violence Gene, MAOA-2R.
11b- MAOA, Race, and Crime.
11c- The 2-Repeat Allele of the MAOA Gene Confers an Increased Risk for Shooting and Stabbing Behaviors.
12- Osteological/Bioarchaeological Analysis.
13a- Brain size, IQ, and racial-group differences: Evidence from musculoskeletal traits.
13b- Brain Size, Race, and IQ.
13c- Brain Size and IQ.
13d- Brain size and correlates with IQ.
13e- Modeling the 3D Geometry of the Cortical Surface with Genetic Ancestry.
14a- Race and IQ: Genes That Predict Racial Intelligence Differences.
14b- A review of intelligence GWAS hits: Their relationship to country IQ and the issue of spatial autocorrelation.
See also: 14 Reasons IQ Race Gap is Genetic
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